PHP Nuclear Reactor

25. Januar 2017

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Asynchronous programming is a way to create programs that can execute multiple parallel tasks faster in the same process by executing code while other parts if the programs wait for I/O operations to finish, like database accesses, file accesses, network accesses, etc..

ReactPHP is a low level library similar to JavaScript Node.js that can be used to implement asynchronous programming in PHP, so you can write PHP code that can efficiently access multiple files, databases, or network computers in parallel, making everything faster.

The PHP Nuclear Reactor is library based on PIMF micro-framework that implements the MVC design pattern on top of ReactPHP.

This way you can continue to write PHP MVC components the way you are used to do, and still work well in an asynchronous programming environment based on ReactPHP.

¬ geschrieben von gjerokrsteski in News und Trends, PIMF

Why reactive application?

11. Mai 2016

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Application requirements have changed dramatically in recent years. Only a few years ago a large application had tens of servers, seconds of response time, hours of offline maintenance and gigabytes of data.

Today applications are deployed on everything from mobile devices to cloud-based clusters running thousands of multi-core processors. Users expect millisecond response times and 100% uptime. Data is measured in Petabytes. Today’s demands are simply not met by yesterday’s software architectures.

Traditional applications


Each request is using 2 running processes, one for each instance of HTTP server and database server. The PHP framework might also generate its own additional process.

The HTTP server instance is generating a request object, which is mostly overloaded for later usage.

The database instance is blocking the response until it has finished its task.

The database response is being buffered by the PHP process in order to generate the DTO (data transfer object).

The PHP process is using the DTO to generate a JSON response for the HTTP server instance.

The entire process starting with the HTTP request until serving the response back to the client, is running in the same thread. This uses the CPU’s default behaviour, which leads to an unbalanced usage of CPU cores.


Reactive applications

We believe that all necessary aspects are already recognised individually: we want systems that are responsive, resilient, elastic and message driven. We call these Reactive Systems.


There is no need for a HTTP server. The application is using one single process. PHP and the database (SQLite) are running inside this process.

There is no need for an overloaded HTTP request object. The required data is mostly limited to request method, path and payload.

The response can be sent immediately to the client, while the data is being processed in the background and all necessary steps are being handled in an asynchronuous manner, using events.

The database is not blocking the response, as its task is being handled asynchronuously.

The entire process is happening within one persistent TCP socket, enabling the repsonse to be streamed to the client.

The process is managing its tasks with several threads, balancing the usage of all CPU cores.


Example Implementation

As an implementation example we used lightweight components which we packed in Docker containers. AlpineOS and Ubuntu already come as Docker images ready to be used.

ReactPHP is responsible for establishing the TCP socket, transferring the raw HTTP request and sending the HTTP response back.

PIMF micro framework is responsible for managing the HTTP resources using the HTTP request methods, validating the data and handling the persistence interaction.


You can find the source code at GitHub:

Feel free to fork it and experiment yourself!


Systems built as Reactive Systems are more flexible, loosely-coupled and scalable. This makes them easier to develop and amenable to change. They are significantly more tolerant of failure and when failure does occur they meet it with elegance rather than disaster. Reactive Systems are highly responsive, giving users effective interactive feedback.


The Reactive Manifesto

What is Reactive Programming?




This is the result of an Exploration Day exercise by Gjero Krsteski and Ralph Bach.

¬ geschrieben von gjerokrsteski in News und Trends, PHP Tricks und Tipps, PIMF

Checkout PIMF Starter Book

28. April 2016

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This is a hands-on book. You won’t be able to complete it by reading it in a metro on a way to work. You’ll have to read this book while in front of a computer getting your hands dirty. You will learn developing console and web applications as well as micro services. This book is interesting for intermediate developers as well as beginners.

Learning PIMF

One of the best ways to learn PIMF is to read through the entire of its documentation. This guide details all aspects of the framework and how to apply them to your application.

Read the PIMF Starter book almost anywhere. Available as a PDF, EPUB and MOBI. You can now read it on all devices, as well as offline:

Eventually, you might get stuck and in need of help. Or you might want to write a review or comment on the book’s content. Please post your thoughts on this blog post. If you prefer one-on-one discussion, feel free to send me an email to, and I’ll give my best to help you out.

¬ geschrieben von gjerokrsteski in News und Trends, PIMF

PIMF vs. Silex

27. November 2015

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This performance comparison was done by TechEmpower, Inc. CA. They made the benchmark of many web application frameworks executing fundamental tasks such as JSON serialization, database access, and server-side template composition. Each framework is operating in a realistic production configuration. Results are captured on physical hardware. The test implementations are largely community-contributed and all source is available at the GitHub repository.

In the following tests, TechEmpower have measured the performance of several web application platforms, full-stack frameworks, and micro-frameworks (collectively, „frameworks“). For more information, read the introduction, motivation, and latest environment details.


Peak: Dell R720xd dual Xeon E5-2660 v2 (40 HT cores) with 32 GB memory; database servers equipped with SSDs in RAID; switched 10-gigabit Ethernet


Current versions of: Linux, PHP-FPM, nginx on Linux, MySQL on Linux

Single query test

In this test, each request is processed by fetching a single row from a simple database table. That row is then serialized as a JSON response.

Best (bar chart)
Single query Best (bar chart)

Data table
Single query Data table

Single query Latency

Framework overhead
Single query Framework overhead

Multiple queries test

In this test, each request is processed by fetching multiple rows from a simple database table and serializing these rows as a JSON response. The test is run multiple times: testing 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 queries per request. All tests are run at 256 concurrency.

20-queries (bar)
Multiple queries 20-queries (bar)

Data table
Multiple queries Data table

Multiple queries Latency

Framework overhead
Multiple queries Framework overhead

¬ geschrieben von gjerokrsteski in PIMF

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